Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a blood disorder that occurs when there are changes in the number or function of blood cells.
It is a type of “leukemia” often confused with it. MDS is a severe condition affecting the bone marrow, where blood cells are made. The bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue inside bones. Normal bone marrow has many stem cells that constantly make new blood cells as they die. Your body needs blood cells to carry oxygen and fight infection. When you have low numbers of certain types of blood cells, such as neutrophils (a type of white blood cell), it’s harder for your body to fight off infections like pneumonia or anemia (low red blood cell count). It can be challenging to diagnose and treat; however, recent research has led to new treatments for this condition.
The two most common types of MDS are MDS-C and AML. MDS-C stands for Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, which occurs in people diagnosed with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia at some point in their lives. The symptoms are similar to those of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and feeling weak or tired. Unlike with CLL, however, patients with MDS-C do not experience an enlarged spleen or swollen lymph nodes.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), also known as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is a type of cancer that begins in one type of white blood cell called the promyelocyte and later develops into a more mature type of white blood cell called the myelocyte. The disease occurs in children and adults but is most common in adults over 55.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of bone marrow disorders that may progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Promyelocytes are the immature precursors of another type of white blood cell called myelocytes. In APL, the promyelocytes develop abnormally and begin to multiply uncontrollably in the bone marrow, accumulating these cells outside of bones and other tissues where they should normally be found.
The most common symptom of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) is an increase in white blood cell counts. These changes are often seen in the bone marrow but can also affect other body parts.
The most common symptoms of MDS include:
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Muscle weakness and fatigue
- Nasal congestion
The cause of MDS is unknown, but it may be related to the environment you were born in, your genetics, and even your diet. It happens more frequently in men than women.
In most cases, MDS goes unnoticed for years because it doesn’t produce symptoms until later on in life. Many people diagnosed with MDS only realize they have it when they have trouble producing enough blood cells for their body’s needs. MDS can be treated. Some types of MDS are more severe than others and may require a bone marrow transplant. New treatments for MDS include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and expanding the number of stem cells in your body.
Most people with MDS have a type of disease called myelodysplasia with refractory anemia (MDR). MDR occurs when the number of blood cells in your body decreases, and they don’t work as well as they should. The most common type of MDR is refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), which is a severe form of the disease. People with RARS may need to take blood transfusions or other medicines to replace their blood cells.
These treatments are very effective at treating the disease but sometimes fail because they don’t always work as well as hoped, or they cause other health problems like anemia (low red blood cell count) or infections such as pneumonia.
Many people in the world live with MDS and its related condition, anemia. It is a severe blood disorder that primarily affects individuals over age 65. Its reported incidence is 2-3 per million people annually. The survival rate is 60% at five years, 15% at ten years, and 5% at twenty years. It tends to affect people aged between 50 and 70 years, and risk factors include:
- Previous blood cancers (leukemia, lymphoma, or myeloma).
- Radiation treatment.
- Exposure to certain toxic chemicals.
The causes are not fully understood, but genetics probably play a role in some cases. In addition to making you feel sick, patients can also have symptoms associated with anemia, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, or chest pains. The disease is usually diagnosed with blood tests and a bone marrow biopsy. Treatment generally involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. The prognosis depends on the stage of cancer at diagnosis. If you experience these symptoms, you must see your doctor immediately or enter MDS clinical trials since MDS can progress quickly without proper treatment.